What is eczema?

Eczema is a dermatological disease characterized by skin eruptions in the form of papules with serous contents, edema and itching of the affected skin. Can pass in a dry and wet form, different polymorphism manifestations in the form of rashes. Inflammatory process with eczema is allergic in nature, but the causes of the disease can be different - prolonged skin contact with the allergen, metabolic disorders, pathology of the nervous and endocrine system. Therefore, in the treatment of eczema, complex therapy is used, which the doctor appoints individually for each patient.

Eczema can take place in acute and chronic form, has a cyclic development with periods of remission, often a relapse of the disease. Skin rashes and related unpleasant sensations not only spoil the appearance of the patient and give him discomfort, but can significantly worsen his psychological state. Given the neuro-allergic nature of the disease, it only aggravates the pathological process, slowing recovery. The therapeutic measures include different therapeutic directions, from which the most effective ones are selected for each individual case. Eczema refers to idiopathic diseases, the causes and mechanism of its development are not fully understood, and there are a group of factors capable of provoking an eczema of a certain type. Such diseases as vegetative dystonia, varicose veins, diabetes mellitus, dysfunction of the thyroid gland, pathology of the digestive system against the background of psychoemotional stress and hereditary predisposition can provoke eczema.

Idiopathic or true eczema is characterized by spontaneous rashes without any apparent cause, the trigger for the disease is contact with allergens, chemically aggressive substances against a background of increased sensitization of the body. For idiopathic eczema, such manifestations as papules with serous contents, eroding erosion, crusts and scales are characteristic, all of which can be present on the skin simultaneously, which is a characteristic sign of this type of eczema. Another feature of true eczema is the symmetry of the rashes (with the lesion of one hand, the same skin rashes are usually present on the second). The disease is characterized by seasonality with exacerbations in the autumn-winter period.

  • Children's eczema - the disease affects infants, begins with a person, from where gradually passes to the neck, chest and limbs. It often affects infants who are on artificial feeding and children who have a genetic predisposition to the development of bronchial asthma and other atopic diseases.
  • Seborrheic eczema - it provokes fungi that parasitize the scalp. In addition, seborrheic eczema can affect areas of the skin where a large number of sebaceous glands are located - the face, axillary region, scapula. The disease proceeds without a wetting stage, characterized by nodular eruptions with scales, peeling and crusting (how is oily and dry seborrhea treated?).
  • Atopic eczema - is typical for people prone to allergic reactions. Manifestations in the form of vesicles, swelling of the skin and hyperemia occur after contact with the allergen.
  • Occupational eczema is common among workers in chemical plants, cleaners and those who are constantly in contact with household chemicals, formaldehydes, coloring substances. The disease begins with the defeat of the skin of the hands, as it is most often susceptible to the influence of chemical stimuli, and then goes on to other parts of the body.
  • Microbial eczema - occurs on skin areas with inflammatory processes that are the result of a microbial or fungal infection. The main focus of the disease is the area of ​​the skin with wounds, trophic ulcers and fistulae, where greenish or yellow shade is formed. If crusts are damaged, a wetting surface of red color opens, which can expand from the periphery.
  • Varicose eczema - a violation of blood circulation and venous stasis in the tissues can lead to skin rashes on the lower extremities. More often affects older women, people with cardiovascular pathologies, overweight. Other symptoms include darkening of the epidermis, red spots and irritations on the skin, and the presence of non-healing wounds on the legs.
  • Dyshidrotic eczema - occurs due to a violation of the activity of sweat glands and neuroendocrine regulation. Often there are people with hyperhidrosis of feet and palms, as well as those who by virtue of the profession constantly has contact with chemically aggressive substances. The rashes start with the hands, appear on the lateral surfaces of the fingers, after which they pass to other parts of the body. Spontaneously occur after severe stress or in the hot season when the organism overheats, spontaneously pass, if there are no complications in the form of secondary infection (for more details: dyshidrotic eczema on the fingers).

Causes of Eczema

In view of the fact that eczema belongs to idiopathic diseases, it is difficult to specify the exact cause of its occurrence. However, there are a number of predisposing factors, among which:

Endogenous causes of eczema:

  • Digestive disorders (pancreatitis, flatulence, dysbiosis, hepatitis) and evacuation (diarrhea, constipation);
  • Renal dysfunction, nephrosis;
  • Hereditary predisposition to atopic diseases;
  • Angiovegetative neuroses;
  • Neuroendocrine pathologies, and many others.

Exogenous causes of eczema:

  • Effects on the skin of allergens, synthetic and aggressive chemicals, such as petroleum products, acids, alcohols, phenols and other irritants;
  • Influence of ultraviolet, supercooling, overheating and other climatic changes;
  • Trauma of the skin and, in particular, peripheral nerves;
  • Allergic reaction to pharmaceutical preparations, such as benzylpenicellin, novocaine and others.
  • All these factors create a situation in which the skin becomes hypersensitive to the effects of physical, chemical and other irritants.